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The Resource Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles : reality, potential, and challenges, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, editor, (electronic book)

Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles : reality, potential, and challenges, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, editor, (electronic book)

Label
Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles : reality, potential, and challenges
Title
Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles
Title remainder
reality, potential, and challenges
Statement of responsibility
Yoseph Bar-Cohen, editor
Contributor
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
In concept and execution, this book covers the field of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, processing techniques, and characterization methods. In this second edition the reader is brought current on promising advances in EAP that have occurred in electric EAP, electroactive polymer gels, ionomeric polymer-metal composites, carbon nanotube actuators, and more
Member of
Additional physical form
Also available in print version.
Cataloging source
CaBNvSL
Dewey number
610/.28
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
index present
LC call number
R857.P6
LC item number
E43 2004
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
  • dictionaries
  • bibliography
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph.
Series statement
SPIE Press monograph
Series volume
136
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Polymers in medicine
  • Conducting polymers
  • Muscles
  • Polymers
  • Muscles
Target audience
adult
Label
Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles : reality, potential, and challenges, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, editor, (electronic book)
Instantiates
Publication
Note
"SPIE digital library."
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and index
Color
black and white
Contents
  • Topic 1. Introduction -- Chapter 1. EAP history, current status, and infrastructure / Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. Biological muscles -- 1.3. Historical review and currently available active polymers -- 1.4. Polymers with controllable properties or shape -- 1.5. Electroactive polymers (EAP) -- 1.6. The EAP roadmap, need for an established EAP technology -- Infrastructure -- 1.7. Potential -- 1.8. Acknowledgments -- 1.9. References --
  • Topic 2. Natural muscles -- Chapter 2. Natural muscle as a biological system / Gerald H. Pollack, Felix A. Blyakhman, Frederick B. Reitz, Olga V. Yakovenko, and Dwayne L. Dunaway -- 2.1. Conceptual background -- 2.2. Structural considerations -- 2.3. Does contraction involve a phase transition? -- 2.4. Molecular basis of the phase transition -- 2.5. Lessons from the natural muscle system that may be useful for the design of polymer actuators -- 2.6. References -- Chapter 3. Metrics of natural muscle function / Robert J. Full and Kenneth Meijer -- 3.1. Caution about copying and comparisons -- 3.2. Common characterizations, partial picture -- 3.3. Work-loop method reveals diverse roles of muscle function during rhythmic activity -- 3.4. Direct comparisons of muscle with human-made actuators -- 3.5. Future reciprocal Interdisciplinary collaborations -- 3.6. Acknowledgments -- 3.7. References --
  • Topic 3. EAP materials -- Topic 3.1. Electric EAP -- Chapter 4. Electric EAP / Qiming Zhang, Cheng Huang, Feng Xia, and Ji Su -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. General terminology of electromechanical effects in electric EAP -- 4.3. PVDF-based ferroelectric polymers -- 4.4. Ferroelectric odd-numbered polyamides (nylons) -- 4.5. Electrostriction -- 4.6. Field-induced strain due to Maxwell stress effect -- 4.7. High dielectric constant polymeric materials as actuator materials -- 4.8. Electrets -- 4.9. Liquid-crystal polymers -- 4.10. Acknowledgments -- 4.11. References --
  • Topic 3.2. Ionic EAP -- Chapter 5. Electroactive polymer gels / Paul Calvert -- 5.1. Introduction, the gel state -- 5.2. Physical gels -- 5.3. Chemical gels -- 5.4. Thermodynamic properties of gels -- 5.5. Transport properties of gels -- 5.6. Polyelectrolyte gels -- 5.7. Mechanical properties of gels -- 5.8. Chemical actuation of gels -- 5.9. Electrically actuated gels -- 5.10. Recent progress -- 5.11. Future directions -- 5.12. References -- Chapter 6. Ionomeric polymer-metal composites / Sia Nemat-Nasser and Chris W. Thomas -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. Brief history of IPMC materials -- 6.3. Materials and manufacture -- 6.4. Properties and characterization -- 6.5. Actuation mechanism -- 6.6. Development of IPMC applications -- 6.7. Discussion: advantages/disadvantages -- 6.8. Acknowledgments -- 6.9. References -- Chapter 7. Conductive polymers / José-María Sansiñena and Virginia Olazábal -- 7.1. Brief history of conductive polymers -- 7.2. Applications of conductive polymers -- 7.3. Basic mechanism of CP actuators -- 7.4. Development of CP actuators -- 7.5. Advantages and disadvantages of CP actuators -- 7.6. Acknowledgments -- 7.7. References -- Chapter 8. Carbon nanotube actuators: synthesis, properties, and performance / Geoffrey M. Spinks, Gordon G. Wallace, Ray H. Baughman, and Liming Dai -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Nanotube synthesis -- 8.3. Characterization of carbon nanotubes -- 8.4. Macroscopic nanotube assemblies: mats and fibers -- 8.5. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes -- 8.6. Mechanism of nanotube actuation -- 8.7. Experimental studies of carbon nanotube actuators -- 8.8. Conclusions and future developments -- 8.9. References --
  • Topic 3.3. Molecular EAP -- Chapter 9. Molecular scale electroactive polymers / Michael J. Marsella -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Intrinsic properties and macroscale translation -- 9.3. Stimulus-induced conformational changes within the single molecule -- 9.4. Final comments -- 9.5. References --
  • Topic 4. Modeling electroactive polymers -- Chapter 10. Computational chemistry / Kristopher E. Wise -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. Overview of computational methods -- 10.3. Quantum mechanical methods -- 10.4. Classical force field simulations -- 10.5. Mesoscale simulations -- 10.6. References -- Chapter 11. Modeling and analysis of chemistry and electromechanics / Thomas Wallmersperger, Bernd Kröplin, and Rainer W. Gülch -- 11.1. Introduction --11.2. Chemical stimulation -- 11.3. Electrical stimulation -- 11.4. Conclusion -- 11.5. References -- Chapter 12. Electromechanical models for optimal design and effective behavior of electroactive polymers / Kaushik Bhattacharya, Jiangyu Li, and Yu Xiao -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Introduction to finite elasticity -- 12.3. Optimal design of electrostatic actuators -- 12.4. Models of ionomer actuators -- 12.5. Reduced models -- 12.6. Conclusion -- 12.7. Acknowledgment -- 12.8. References -- Chapter 13. Modeling IPMC for design of actuation mechanisms / Satoshi Tadokoro, Masashi Konyo, and Keisuke Oguro -- 13.1. Models and CAE tools for design of IPMC mechanisms -- 13.2. A physicochemical model considering six phenomena -- 13.3. Gray-box macroscopic model for mechanical and control design -- 13.4. Simulation demonstration by models -- 13.5. Applications of the model -- 13.6. References --
  • Topic 5. Processing and fabrication of EAPs -- Chapter 14. Processing and fabrication techniques / Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Virginia Olazábal, José-María Sansiñena, and Jeffrey Hinkley -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. Synthesis and material processing -- 14.3. Fabrication and shaping techniques -- 14.4. Electroding techniques -- 14.5. System integration methods -- 14.6. EAP actuators -- 14.7. Concluding remarks -- 14.8. References --
  • Topic 6. Testing and characterization -- Chapter 15. Methods of testing and characterization / Stewart Sherrit, Xiaoqi Bao, and Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 15.1. Introduction -- 15.2. Characterization of EAP with polarization-dependent strains -- 15.3. Characterization of ionic EAP with diffusion-dependent strain -- 15.4. Summary of test methods -- 15.5. Conclusion -- 15.6. Acknowledgments -- 15.7. References --
  • Topic 7. EAP actuators, devices, and mechanisms -- Chapter 16. Application of dielectric elastomer EAP actuators / Roy Kornbluh, Ron Pelrine, Qibing Pei, Marcus Rosenthal, Scott Stanford, Neville Bonwit, Richard Heydt, Harsha Prahlad, and Subramanian V. Shastri -- 16.1. Introduction -- 16.2. Dielectric elastomer EAP, background and basics -- 16.3. Actuator design issues -- 16.4. Operational considerations -- 16.5. Examples of dielectric elastomer EAP actuators and applications -- 16.6. Artificial muscles and applications to biologically inspired devices -- 16.7. General purpose linear actuators -- 16.8. Planar and other actuator configurations -- 16.9. Motors -- 16.10. Generators -- 16.11. Sensors -- 16.12. Summary and future developments -- 16.13. Acknowledgments -- 16.14. References --
  • Chapter 17. Biologically inspired robots / Brett Kennedy, Chris Melhuish, and Andrew Adamatzky -- 17.1. Introduction -- 17.2. Biologically inspired mechanisms and robots -- 17.3. Aspects of robotic design -- 17.4. Active polymer actuators in a traditional robotic system -- 17.5. Using rapid prototyping methods for integrated design -- 17.6. Evolutionary design algorithms (genetic algorithm design) -- 17.7. EAP actuators in highly integrated microrobot design -- 17.8. Solving the power problem toward energetic autonomy -- 17.9. The future of active polymer actuators and robots -- 17.10. References --
  • Chapter 18. Applications of EAP to the entertainment industry / David Hanson -- 18.1. Introduction -- 18.2. Entertainment and its shifting significance -- 18.3. Technical background to entertainment application of EAP -- 18.4. The craft of aesthetic biomimesis in entertainment -- 18.5. A recipe for using EAP in entertainment -- 18.6. Facial expression robot-practical test bed for EAP -- 18.7. Conclusion -- 18.8. Acknowledgment -- 18.9. References --
  • Chapter 19. Haptic interfaces using electrorheological fluids / Constantinos Mavroidis, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, and Mourad Bouzit -- 19.1. Introduction -- 19.2. Electrorheological fluids -- 19.3. Haptic interfaces and electrorheological fluids -- 19.4. MEMICA haptic glove -- 19.5. ECS element model derivation -- 19.6. Parametric analysis of the design of ECS elements -- 19.7. Experimental ECS system and results -- 19.8. Conclusions -- 19.9. Acknowledgments -- 19.10. References --
  • Chapter 20. Shape control of precision gossamer apertures / Christopher H. M. Jenkins -- 20.1. Introduction -- 20.2. Shape control of PGAs -- 20.3. Shape control methodologies involving electroactive polymers -- 20.4. Conclusions -- 20.5. Nomenclature -- 20.6. Acknowledgments -- 20.7. References --
  • Topic 8. Lessons learned, applications, and outlook -- Chapter 21. EAP applications, potential, and challenges / Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 21.1. Introduction -- 21.2. Lesson learned using IPMC and dielectric EAP -- 21.3. Summary of existing EAP materials -- 21.4. Scalability issues and needs -- 21.5. Expected and evolving applications -- 21.6. EAP characterization -- 21.7. Platforms for demonstration of EAP -- 21.8. Future expectations -- 21.9. Acknowledgments -- 21.10. References -- Index
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
2nd ed.
Extent
1 online resource (xvii, 765 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9780819481122
Other physical details
digital file.
Reformatting quality
access
Reproduction note
Electronic resource.
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader
Label
Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles : reality, potential, and challenges, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, editor, (electronic book)
Publication
Note
"SPIE digital library."
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references and index
Color
black and white
Contents
  • Topic 1. Introduction -- Chapter 1. EAP history, current status, and infrastructure / Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. Biological muscles -- 1.3. Historical review and currently available active polymers -- 1.4. Polymers with controllable properties or shape -- 1.5. Electroactive polymers (EAP) -- 1.6. The EAP roadmap, need for an established EAP technology -- Infrastructure -- 1.7. Potential -- 1.8. Acknowledgments -- 1.9. References --
  • Topic 2. Natural muscles -- Chapter 2. Natural muscle as a biological system / Gerald H. Pollack, Felix A. Blyakhman, Frederick B. Reitz, Olga V. Yakovenko, and Dwayne L. Dunaway -- 2.1. Conceptual background -- 2.2. Structural considerations -- 2.3. Does contraction involve a phase transition? -- 2.4. Molecular basis of the phase transition -- 2.5. Lessons from the natural muscle system that may be useful for the design of polymer actuators -- 2.6. References -- Chapter 3. Metrics of natural muscle function / Robert J. Full and Kenneth Meijer -- 3.1. Caution about copying and comparisons -- 3.2. Common characterizations, partial picture -- 3.3. Work-loop method reveals diverse roles of muscle function during rhythmic activity -- 3.4. Direct comparisons of muscle with human-made actuators -- 3.5. Future reciprocal Interdisciplinary collaborations -- 3.6. Acknowledgments -- 3.7. References --
  • Topic 3. EAP materials -- Topic 3.1. Electric EAP -- Chapter 4. Electric EAP / Qiming Zhang, Cheng Huang, Feng Xia, and Ji Su -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. General terminology of electromechanical effects in electric EAP -- 4.3. PVDF-based ferroelectric polymers -- 4.4. Ferroelectric odd-numbered polyamides (nylons) -- 4.5. Electrostriction -- 4.6. Field-induced strain due to Maxwell stress effect -- 4.7. High dielectric constant polymeric materials as actuator materials -- 4.8. Electrets -- 4.9. Liquid-crystal polymers -- 4.10. Acknowledgments -- 4.11. References --
  • Topic 3.2. Ionic EAP -- Chapter 5. Electroactive polymer gels / Paul Calvert -- 5.1. Introduction, the gel state -- 5.2. Physical gels -- 5.3. Chemical gels -- 5.4. Thermodynamic properties of gels -- 5.5. Transport properties of gels -- 5.6. Polyelectrolyte gels -- 5.7. Mechanical properties of gels -- 5.8. Chemical actuation of gels -- 5.9. Electrically actuated gels -- 5.10. Recent progress -- 5.11. Future directions -- 5.12. References -- Chapter 6. Ionomeric polymer-metal composites / Sia Nemat-Nasser and Chris W. Thomas -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. Brief history of IPMC materials -- 6.3. Materials and manufacture -- 6.4. Properties and characterization -- 6.5. Actuation mechanism -- 6.6. Development of IPMC applications -- 6.7. Discussion: advantages/disadvantages -- 6.8. Acknowledgments -- 6.9. References -- Chapter 7. Conductive polymers / José-María Sansiñena and Virginia Olazábal -- 7.1. Brief history of conductive polymers -- 7.2. Applications of conductive polymers -- 7.3. Basic mechanism of CP actuators -- 7.4. Development of CP actuators -- 7.5. Advantages and disadvantages of CP actuators -- 7.6. Acknowledgments -- 7.7. References -- Chapter 8. Carbon nanotube actuators: synthesis, properties, and performance / Geoffrey M. Spinks, Gordon G. Wallace, Ray H. Baughman, and Liming Dai -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Nanotube synthesis -- 8.3. Characterization of carbon nanotubes -- 8.4. Macroscopic nanotube assemblies: mats and fibers -- 8.5. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes -- 8.6. Mechanism of nanotube actuation -- 8.7. Experimental studies of carbon nanotube actuators -- 8.8. Conclusions and future developments -- 8.9. References --
  • Topic 3.3. Molecular EAP -- Chapter 9. Molecular scale electroactive polymers / Michael J. Marsella -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Intrinsic properties and macroscale translation -- 9.3. Stimulus-induced conformational changes within the single molecule -- 9.4. Final comments -- 9.5. References --
  • Topic 4. Modeling electroactive polymers -- Chapter 10. Computational chemistry / Kristopher E. Wise -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. Overview of computational methods -- 10.3. Quantum mechanical methods -- 10.4. Classical force field simulations -- 10.5. Mesoscale simulations -- 10.6. References -- Chapter 11. Modeling and analysis of chemistry and electromechanics / Thomas Wallmersperger, Bernd Kröplin, and Rainer W. Gülch -- 11.1. Introduction --11.2. Chemical stimulation -- 11.3. Electrical stimulation -- 11.4. Conclusion -- 11.5. References -- Chapter 12. Electromechanical models for optimal design and effective behavior of electroactive polymers / Kaushik Bhattacharya, Jiangyu Li, and Yu Xiao -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Introduction to finite elasticity -- 12.3. Optimal design of electrostatic actuators -- 12.4. Models of ionomer actuators -- 12.5. Reduced models -- 12.6. Conclusion -- 12.7. Acknowledgment -- 12.8. References -- Chapter 13. Modeling IPMC for design of actuation mechanisms / Satoshi Tadokoro, Masashi Konyo, and Keisuke Oguro -- 13.1. Models and CAE tools for design of IPMC mechanisms -- 13.2. A physicochemical model considering six phenomena -- 13.3. Gray-box macroscopic model for mechanical and control design -- 13.4. Simulation demonstration by models -- 13.5. Applications of the model -- 13.6. References --
  • Topic 5. Processing and fabrication of EAPs -- Chapter 14. Processing and fabrication techniques / Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Virginia Olazábal, José-María Sansiñena, and Jeffrey Hinkley -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. Synthesis and material processing -- 14.3. Fabrication and shaping techniques -- 14.4. Electroding techniques -- 14.5. System integration methods -- 14.6. EAP actuators -- 14.7. Concluding remarks -- 14.8. References --
  • Topic 6. Testing and characterization -- Chapter 15. Methods of testing and characterization / Stewart Sherrit, Xiaoqi Bao, and Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 15.1. Introduction -- 15.2. Characterization of EAP with polarization-dependent strains -- 15.3. Characterization of ionic EAP with diffusion-dependent strain -- 15.4. Summary of test methods -- 15.5. Conclusion -- 15.6. Acknowledgments -- 15.7. References --
  • Topic 7. EAP actuators, devices, and mechanisms -- Chapter 16. Application of dielectric elastomer EAP actuators / Roy Kornbluh, Ron Pelrine, Qibing Pei, Marcus Rosenthal, Scott Stanford, Neville Bonwit, Richard Heydt, Harsha Prahlad, and Subramanian V. Shastri -- 16.1. Introduction -- 16.2. Dielectric elastomer EAP, background and basics -- 16.3. Actuator design issues -- 16.4. Operational considerations -- 16.5. Examples of dielectric elastomer EAP actuators and applications -- 16.6. Artificial muscles and applications to biologically inspired devices -- 16.7. General purpose linear actuators -- 16.8. Planar and other actuator configurations -- 16.9. Motors -- 16.10. Generators -- 16.11. Sensors -- 16.12. Summary and future developments -- 16.13. Acknowledgments -- 16.14. References --
  • Chapter 17. Biologically inspired robots / Brett Kennedy, Chris Melhuish, and Andrew Adamatzky -- 17.1. Introduction -- 17.2. Biologically inspired mechanisms and robots -- 17.3. Aspects of robotic design -- 17.4. Active polymer actuators in a traditional robotic system -- 17.5. Using rapid prototyping methods for integrated design -- 17.6. Evolutionary design algorithms (genetic algorithm design) -- 17.7. EAP actuators in highly integrated microrobot design -- 17.8. Solving the power problem toward energetic autonomy -- 17.9. The future of active polymer actuators and robots -- 17.10. References --
  • Chapter 18. Applications of EAP to the entertainment industry / David Hanson -- 18.1. Introduction -- 18.2. Entertainment and its shifting significance -- 18.3. Technical background to entertainment application of EAP -- 18.4. The craft of aesthetic biomimesis in entertainment -- 18.5. A recipe for using EAP in entertainment -- 18.6. Facial expression robot-practical test bed for EAP -- 18.7. Conclusion -- 18.8. Acknowledgment -- 18.9. References --
  • Chapter 19. Haptic interfaces using electrorheological fluids / Constantinos Mavroidis, Yoseph Bar-Cohen, and Mourad Bouzit -- 19.1. Introduction -- 19.2. Electrorheological fluids -- 19.3. Haptic interfaces and electrorheological fluids -- 19.4. MEMICA haptic glove -- 19.5. ECS element model derivation -- 19.6. Parametric analysis of the design of ECS elements -- 19.7. Experimental ECS system and results -- 19.8. Conclusions -- 19.9. Acknowledgments -- 19.10. References --
  • Chapter 20. Shape control of precision gossamer apertures / Christopher H. M. Jenkins -- 20.1. Introduction -- 20.2. Shape control of PGAs -- 20.3. Shape control methodologies involving electroactive polymers -- 20.4. Conclusions -- 20.5. Nomenclature -- 20.6. Acknowledgments -- 20.7. References --
  • Topic 8. Lessons learned, applications, and outlook -- Chapter 21. EAP applications, potential, and challenges / Yoseph Bar-Cohen -- 21.1. Introduction -- 21.2. Lesson learned using IPMC and dielectric EAP -- 21.3. Summary of existing EAP materials -- 21.4. Scalability issues and needs -- 21.5. Expected and evolving applications -- 21.6. EAP characterization -- 21.7. Platforms for demonstration of EAP -- 21.8. Future expectations -- 21.9. Acknowledgments -- 21.10. References -- Index
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
2nd ed.
Extent
1 online resource (xvii, 765 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9780819481122
Other physical details
digital file.
Reformatting quality
access
Reproduction note
Electronic resource.
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader

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