Coverart for item
The Resource Materials and the Environment : Eco-informed Material Choice, (electronic book)

Materials and the Environment : Eco-informed Material Choice, (electronic book)

Label
Materials and the Environment : Eco-informed Material Choice
Title
Materials and the Environment
Title remainder
Eco-informed Material Choice
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
  • Materials and the Environment: Eco-Informed Material Choice, Second Edition, explores human dependence on materials and its environmental consequences. It provides perspective, background, methods, and data for thinking about and designing with materials to minimize their environmental impact. Organized into 15 chapters, the book looks at the history of our increasing dependence on materials and energy. It first explains where materials come from and how they are used in a variety of industries, along with their life cycle and their relationship to energy and carbon. It then examines controls and economic instruments that hinder the use of engineering materials, considers sustainability from a materials perspective, and highlights the importance of low-carbon power and material efficiency. It also discusses the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of engineering metals, polymers, ceramics, composites, and natural materials in relation to environmental issues. This book will help students of Engineering and Materials Science, as well as materials scientists or and engineers in analyzing and responding to environmental concerns. Introduces methods and tools for thinking about and designing with materials within the context of their role in products and the environmental consequences Contains numerous case studies showing how the methods discussed in the book can be applied to real-world situations Includes full-color data sheets for 40 of the most widely used materials, featuring such environmentally relevant information as their annual production and reserves, embodied energy and process energies, carbon footprints, and recycling data New to this edition: New chapter of Case Studies of Eco-audits illustrating the rapid audit method New chapter on Materials for Low Carbon Power examines the consequences for materials supply of a major
  • shift from fossil-fuel based power to power from renewables New chapter exploring Material Efficiency, or design and management for manufacture to provide the services we need with the least production of materials Recent news-clips from the world press  that help place materials issues into a broader context.are incorporated into all chapters End-of-chapter exercises have been greatly expanded The datasheets of Chapter 15 have been updated and expanded to include natural and man-made fibers
Member of
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Ashby, M. F.
Dewey number
620.11
LC call number
TA403.6 .A739 2012
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Concurrent engineering
  • Industrial design
  • Materials - Environmental aspects
  • Materials -- Environmental aspects
  • Materials science
Label
Materials and the Environment : Eco-informed Material Choice, (electronic book)
Instantiates
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Front Cover -- Materials and the Environment: Eco-Informed Material Choice -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface and Acknowledgments -- 1. Introduction: material dependence -- 1.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 1.2 Materials: a brief history -- 1.3 Learned dependency: the reliance on nonrenewable materials -- 1.4 Materials and the environment -- 1.5 Summary and conclusions -- 1.6 Further reading -- 1.7 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Level 2 -- 2. Resource consumption and its drivers -- 2.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 2.2 Where do materials come from? -- 2.3 Resource consumption -- 2.4 Exponential growth and doubling times -- 2.5 Reserves, the resource base, and resource life -- 2.6 The materials-energy-carbon triangle -- 2.7 Summary and conclusions -- 2.8 Further reading -- 2.9 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Eco Level 2 -- 3. The material life cycle -- 3.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 3.2 The design process -- 3.3 The materials life cycle -- 3.4 Life-cycle assessment: details and difficulties -- 3.5 Streamlined LCA and eco-auditing -- 3.6 The strategy -- 3.7 Summary and conclusions -- 3.8 Further reading -- 3.9 Appendix: software for LCA -- 3.10 Exercises -- 4. End of first life: a problem or a resource? -- 4.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 4.2 What determines product life? -- 4.3 End-of-first-life options -- 4.4 The problem of packaging -- 4.5 Recycling-resurrecting materials -- 4.6 Summary and conclusions -- 4.7 Further reading -- 4.8 Appendix: designations used in recycle marks -- 4.9 Exercises -- 5. The long reach of legislation -- 5.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 5.2 Growing awareness and legislative response -- 5.3 International treaties, protocols, and conventions -- 5.4 National legislation: standards and directives -- Standards -- Voluntary agreements and binding legislation
  • 5.5 Economic instruments: taxes, subsidies, and trading schemes -- 5.6 The consequences -- 5.7 Summary and conclusions -- 5.8 Further reading -- 5.9 Exercises -- 6. Eco-data: values, sources, precision -- 6.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 6.2 Data precision: recalibrating expectations -- 6.3 The eco-attributes of materials -- 6.4 Energy and CO2 footprints of energy, transport, and use -- 6.5 Exploring the data: property charts -- 6.6 Summary and conclusions -- 6.7 Further reading -- General engineering properties of materials -- Material property charts -- Geo-economic data -- Material production: embodied energy and CO2, engineering materials -- Material production: embodied energy and CO2, precious metals -- Electronic components -- Architecture and the built environment -- Water -- Aggregated measures: eco-indicators -- Material shaping processing: energy and CO2 -- General -- Deformation processing of metals -- Casting of metals -- Vapor forming -- Polymer molding -- Glass molding -- Composite shaping -- Material machining and grinding processing: energy and CO2 -- Fasteners -- Adhesives -- Material finishing processes-painting, polymer coating, and plating energies -- Recycling and end-of-life -- Transport and use energies -- General -- Aircraft -- Cars -- Trucks -- Rail freight -- Shipping -- Fuel mix in electrical energy -- Food and drink -- 6.8 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES software -- 7. Eco-audits and eco-audit tools -- 7.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 7.2 Eco-audits -- 7.3 Computer-aided eco-auditing -- 7.4 Summary and conclusions -- 7.5 Further reading -- 7.6 Appendix: eco-audit tools -- 7.7 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu software -- 8. Case studies: eco-audits -- 8.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 8.2 Reusable and disposable cups -- Further reading -- 8.3 Grocery bags -- Further reading -- 8.4 An electric kettle
  • 8.5 A coffee maker -- 8.6 An A-rated washing machine -- Further reading -- 8.7 Ricoh imagio MF6550 copier -- Further reading -- 8.8 A portable space heater -- 8.9 Ceramic pottery kilns -- 8.10 Auto bumpers-exploring substitution -- 8.11 Family car-comparing material energy with use energy -- Further reading -- 8.12 Computer-assisted audits: a hair dryer -- 8.13 Summary and conclusions -- 8.14 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES eco-audit tool -- 9. Material selection strategies -- 9.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 9.2 The selection strategy: choosing a car -- 9.3 Principles of materials selection -- 9.3.1 Translation -- 9.3.2 Screening -- 9.3.3 Ranking: material indices -- 9.3.4 Documentation -- 9.4 Selection criteria and property charts -- 9.5 Using indices for scaling -- 9.6 Resolving conflicting objectives: trade-off methods -- Weight factors -- Systematic trade-off strategies -- Penalty functions -- Values for the exchange constants Üm and Üc -- Exchange constants for eco-design -- 9.7 Seven useful charts -- The Modulus-Density chart -- The Strength-Density chart -- The Modulus-Embodied energy and Strength-Embodied energy charts -- The Modulus-Carbon footprint and Strength-Carbon footprint charts -- The Thermal conductivity-Thermal diffusivity chart -- 9.8 Computer-aided selection -- 9.9 Summary and conclusions -- 9.10 Further reading -- 9.11 Appendix: deriving material indices -- (a) Material indices for stiffness and strength at minimum mass-simple section shapes -- (b) Using shape to increase stiffness and strength at minimum mass -- Beams with efficient shapes -- Sandwich structures -- (c) Arches and shells -- (d) Indices for stiffness and strength at minimum material embodied energy or carbon footprint -- (e) Indices for stiffness and strength at minimum material cost -- 9.12 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Edu Level 2 Eco
  • 10. Eco-informed materials selection -- 10.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 10.2 Which bottle is best? Selection per unit of function -- 10.3 Systematic eco-selection: carbonated-water bottles -- 10.4 Structural materials for buildings -- 10.5 Initial and recurring embodied energy of buildings -- Further reading -- 10.6 Heating and cooling (1): refrigeration -- 10.7 Heating and cooling (2): materials for passive solar heating -- 10.8 Heating and cooling (3): kilns and cyclic heating -- 10.9 Transportation (1): introduction -- 10.10 Transportation (2): crash barriers-matching material to purpose -- 10.11 Transportation (3): materials for light weight structures -- 10.12 Transportation (4): material substitution for eco-efficient design -- 10.13 Summary and conclusions -- 10.14 Further reading -- 10.15 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu software -- 11. Sustainability: living within our means -- 11.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 11.2 The concept of sustainable development -- 11.3 The ecological metaphor -- 11.4 Material sustainability -- 11.5 Renewable materials -- 11.5.1 Mineral-based materials -- 11.5.2 Vegetable-derived materials-wood and wood-like materials -- 11.5.3 Vegetable-derived materials-fibers -- 11.5.4 Animal-derived materials-wool, silk, skin, and bone -- 11.6 Bio-derived materials -- 11.6.1 Obstacles to the widespread use of biomaterials -- 11.7 Summary and conclusions -- 11.8 Further reading -- 11.9 Exercises -- 12. Materials for low-carbon power -- 12.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 12.2 The resource intensity of power sources-the big picture -- 12.3 Conventional fossil-fuel power: gas and coal -- 12.4 Nuclear power -- 12.5 Solar energy: thermal, thermoelectric, and photovoltaics -- 12.6 Fuel cells -- 12.7 Wind power -- 12.8 Hydropower -- 12.9 Wave power -- 12.10 Tidal power -- 12.11 Geothermal power -- 12.12 Biomass
  • 12.13 Summary and conclusions -- 12.14 Further reading -- The starting point-sources that help with the big picture -- Coal- and gas-fired power -- Nuclear power -- Solar power -- Fuel cells -- Wind power -- Hydropower -- Wave power -- Tidal power -- Geothermal power -- Biomass power -- 12.15 Appendix 1: Definitions of properties -- Energy and power -- Resource intensities -- Operational parameters -- Status -- 12.16 Appendix 2: Approximate material intensities for power systems -- 12.17 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Low Carbon Power database -- 13. Material efficiency -- 13.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 13.2 What is the point of materials efficiency? -- 13.3 Increasing material efficiency (1): engineering solutions -- Material technology -- New and improved materials -- Engineering design -- Longer life, more intense use -- 13.4 Increasing material efficiency (2): legislation and social change -- Economic instruments -- Social adaptation -- 13.5 What makes material efficiency difficult? -- 13.6 Mechanisms to promote material efficiency -- 13.7 Summary and conclusions -- 13.8 Further reading -- 13.9 Exercises -- 14. The bigger picture: future options -- 14.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 14.2 Material value -- 14.3 Carbon, energy, and GDP -- 14.4 Does GDP measure national wealth? -- 14.5 Forces for change: threats -- 14.6 Opportunities -- 14.7 Summary and conclusions -- 14.8 Further reading -- 14.9 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu and State of the World databases -- 15. Material profiles -- 15.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 15.2 Metals and alloys -- Low carbon steel -- Low alloy steel -- Stainless steel -- Cast iron, ductile (nodular) -- Aluminum alloys -- Magnesium alloys -- Titanium alloys -- Copper alloys -- Lead alloys -- Zinc die-casting alloys -- Nickel-chromium alloys -- Nickel-based super alloys -- Silver -- Gold
  • 15.3 Polymers
Control code
EBC900127
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
2nd ed.
Extent
1 online resource (628 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9780123859723
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2016. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Reproduction note
Electronic resource.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
Label
Materials and the Environment : Eco-informed Material Choice, (electronic book)
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Front Cover -- Materials and the Environment: Eco-Informed Material Choice -- Copyright Page -- Contents -- Preface and Acknowledgments -- 1. Introduction: material dependence -- 1.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 1.2 Materials: a brief history -- 1.3 Learned dependency: the reliance on nonrenewable materials -- 1.4 Materials and the environment -- 1.5 Summary and conclusions -- 1.6 Further reading -- 1.7 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Level 2 -- 2. Resource consumption and its drivers -- 2.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 2.2 Where do materials come from? -- 2.3 Resource consumption -- 2.4 Exponential growth and doubling times -- 2.5 Reserves, the resource base, and resource life -- 2.6 The materials-energy-carbon triangle -- 2.7 Summary and conclusions -- 2.8 Further reading -- 2.9 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Eco Level 2 -- 3. The material life cycle -- 3.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 3.2 The design process -- 3.3 The materials life cycle -- 3.4 Life-cycle assessment: details and difficulties -- 3.5 Streamlined LCA and eco-auditing -- 3.6 The strategy -- 3.7 Summary and conclusions -- 3.8 Further reading -- 3.9 Appendix: software for LCA -- 3.10 Exercises -- 4. End of first life: a problem or a resource? -- 4.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 4.2 What determines product life? -- 4.3 End-of-first-life options -- 4.4 The problem of packaging -- 4.5 Recycling-resurrecting materials -- 4.6 Summary and conclusions -- 4.7 Further reading -- 4.8 Appendix: designations used in recycle marks -- 4.9 Exercises -- 5. The long reach of legislation -- 5.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 5.2 Growing awareness and legislative response -- 5.3 International treaties, protocols, and conventions -- 5.4 National legislation: standards and directives -- Standards -- Voluntary agreements and binding legislation
  • 5.5 Economic instruments: taxes, subsidies, and trading schemes -- 5.6 The consequences -- 5.7 Summary and conclusions -- 5.8 Further reading -- 5.9 Exercises -- 6. Eco-data: values, sources, precision -- 6.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 6.2 Data precision: recalibrating expectations -- 6.3 The eco-attributes of materials -- 6.4 Energy and CO2 footprints of energy, transport, and use -- 6.5 Exploring the data: property charts -- 6.6 Summary and conclusions -- 6.7 Further reading -- General engineering properties of materials -- Material property charts -- Geo-economic data -- Material production: embodied energy and CO2, engineering materials -- Material production: embodied energy and CO2, precious metals -- Electronic components -- Architecture and the built environment -- Water -- Aggregated measures: eco-indicators -- Material shaping processing: energy and CO2 -- General -- Deformation processing of metals -- Casting of metals -- Vapor forming -- Polymer molding -- Glass molding -- Composite shaping -- Material machining and grinding processing: energy and CO2 -- Fasteners -- Adhesives -- Material finishing processes-painting, polymer coating, and plating energies -- Recycling and end-of-life -- Transport and use energies -- General -- Aircraft -- Cars -- Trucks -- Rail freight -- Shipping -- Fuel mix in electrical energy -- Food and drink -- 6.8 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES software -- 7. Eco-audits and eco-audit tools -- 7.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 7.2 Eco-audits -- 7.3 Computer-aided eco-auditing -- 7.4 Summary and conclusions -- 7.5 Further reading -- 7.6 Appendix: eco-audit tools -- 7.7 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu software -- 8. Case studies: eco-audits -- 8.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 8.2 Reusable and disposable cups -- Further reading -- 8.3 Grocery bags -- Further reading -- 8.4 An electric kettle
  • 8.5 A coffee maker -- 8.6 An A-rated washing machine -- Further reading -- 8.7 Ricoh imagio MF6550 copier -- Further reading -- 8.8 A portable space heater -- 8.9 Ceramic pottery kilns -- 8.10 Auto bumpers-exploring substitution -- 8.11 Family car-comparing material energy with use energy -- Further reading -- 8.12 Computer-assisted audits: a hair dryer -- 8.13 Summary and conclusions -- 8.14 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES eco-audit tool -- 9. Material selection strategies -- 9.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 9.2 The selection strategy: choosing a car -- 9.3 Principles of materials selection -- 9.3.1 Translation -- 9.3.2 Screening -- 9.3.3 Ranking: material indices -- 9.3.4 Documentation -- 9.4 Selection criteria and property charts -- 9.5 Using indices for scaling -- 9.6 Resolving conflicting objectives: trade-off methods -- Weight factors -- Systematic trade-off strategies -- Penalty functions -- Values for the exchange constants Üm and Üc -- Exchange constants for eco-design -- 9.7 Seven useful charts -- The Modulus-Density chart -- The Strength-Density chart -- The Modulus-Embodied energy and Strength-Embodied energy charts -- The Modulus-Carbon footprint and Strength-Carbon footprint charts -- The Thermal conductivity-Thermal diffusivity chart -- 9.8 Computer-aided selection -- 9.9 Summary and conclusions -- 9.10 Further reading -- 9.11 Appendix: deriving material indices -- (a) Material indices for stiffness and strength at minimum mass-simple section shapes -- (b) Using shape to increase stiffness and strength at minimum mass -- Beams with efficient shapes -- Sandwich structures -- (c) Arches and shells -- (d) Indices for stiffness and strength at minimum material embodied energy or carbon footprint -- (e) Indices for stiffness and strength at minimum material cost -- 9.12 Exercises -- Exercises using CES Edu Level 2 Eco
  • 10. Eco-informed materials selection -- 10.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 10.2 Which bottle is best? Selection per unit of function -- 10.3 Systematic eco-selection: carbonated-water bottles -- 10.4 Structural materials for buildings -- 10.5 Initial and recurring embodied energy of buildings -- Further reading -- 10.6 Heating and cooling (1): refrigeration -- 10.7 Heating and cooling (2): materials for passive solar heating -- 10.8 Heating and cooling (3): kilns and cyclic heating -- 10.9 Transportation (1): introduction -- 10.10 Transportation (2): crash barriers-matching material to purpose -- 10.11 Transportation (3): materials for light weight structures -- 10.12 Transportation (4): material substitution for eco-efficient design -- 10.13 Summary and conclusions -- 10.14 Further reading -- 10.15 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu software -- 11. Sustainability: living within our means -- 11.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 11.2 The concept of sustainable development -- 11.3 The ecological metaphor -- 11.4 Material sustainability -- 11.5 Renewable materials -- 11.5.1 Mineral-based materials -- 11.5.2 Vegetable-derived materials-wood and wood-like materials -- 11.5.3 Vegetable-derived materials-fibers -- 11.5.4 Animal-derived materials-wool, silk, skin, and bone -- 11.6 Bio-derived materials -- 11.6.1 Obstacles to the widespread use of biomaterials -- 11.7 Summary and conclusions -- 11.8 Further reading -- 11.9 Exercises -- 12. Materials for low-carbon power -- 12.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 12.2 The resource intensity of power sources-the big picture -- 12.3 Conventional fossil-fuel power: gas and coal -- 12.4 Nuclear power -- 12.5 Solar energy: thermal, thermoelectric, and photovoltaics -- 12.6 Fuel cells -- 12.7 Wind power -- 12.8 Hydropower -- 12.9 Wave power -- 12.10 Tidal power -- 12.11 Geothermal power -- 12.12 Biomass
  • 12.13 Summary and conclusions -- 12.14 Further reading -- The starting point-sources that help with the big picture -- Coal- and gas-fired power -- Nuclear power -- Solar power -- Fuel cells -- Wind power -- Hydropower -- Wave power -- Tidal power -- Geothermal power -- Biomass power -- 12.15 Appendix 1: Definitions of properties -- Energy and power -- Resource intensities -- Operational parameters -- Status -- 12.16 Appendix 2: Approximate material intensities for power systems -- 12.17 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Low Carbon Power database -- 13. Material efficiency -- 13.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 13.2 What is the point of materials efficiency? -- 13.3 Increasing material efficiency (1): engineering solutions -- Material technology -- New and improved materials -- Engineering design -- Longer life, more intense use -- 13.4 Increasing material efficiency (2): legislation and social change -- Economic instruments -- Social adaptation -- 13.5 What makes material efficiency difficult? -- 13.6 Mechanisms to promote material efficiency -- 13.7 Summary and conclusions -- 13.8 Further reading -- 13.9 Exercises -- 14. The bigger picture: future options -- 14.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 14.2 Material value -- 14.3 Carbon, energy, and GDP -- 14.4 Does GDP measure national wealth? -- 14.5 Forces for change: threats -- 14.6 Opportunities -- 14.7 Summary and conclusions -- 14.8 Further reading -- 14.9 Exercises -- Exercises using the CES Edu and State of the World databases -- 15. Material profiles -- 15.1 Introduction and synopsis -- 15.2 Metals and alloys -- Low carbon steel -- Low alloy steel -- Stainless steel -- Cast iron, ductile (nodular) -- Aluminum alloys -- Magnesium alloys -- Titanium alloys -- Copper alloys -- Lead alloys -- Zinc die-casting alloys -- Nickel-chromium alloys -- Nickel-based super alloys -- Silver -- Gold
  • 15.3 Polymers
Control code
EBC900127
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
2nd ed.
Extent
1 online resource (628 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9780123859723
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2016. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Reproduction note
Electronic resource.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote

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