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The Resource Sex and the developing brain, Margaret M. McCarthy, (electronic book)

Sex and the developing brain, Margaret M. McCarthy, (electronic book)

Label
Sex and the developing brain
Title
Sex and the developing brain
Statement of responsibility
Margaret M. McCarthy
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
The brains of males and females, men and women, are different--that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important those differences are. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone, which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens, which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health, including but not limited to autism, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, and major depressive disorder
Member of
Cataloging source
CaBNvSL
http://library.link/vocab/creatorDate
1958-
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
McCarthy, Margaret M.
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
no index present
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
  • dictionaries
  • abstracts summaries
  • bibliography
Series statement
Developing brain
Series volume
1
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Brain
  • Developmental neurobiology
  • Brain
  • Sex Differentiation
  • Brain
Target audience
  • adult
  • specialized
Label
Sex and the developing brain, Margaret M. McCarthy, (electronic book)
Instantiates
Publication
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. 87-99)
Color
multicolored
Contents
  • [1] Introduction --
  • [2] Sex determination versus sex differentiation --
  • [3] Masculinization, feminization, and defeminization --
  • [4] Steroid hormones are potent modulators of brain development --
  • [5] Sex differences in the brain are established during a developmental sensitive window -- Steroid levels in the developing brain -- Organizational/activational hormone effects on the brain --
  • [6] Sex differences in physiology and behavior are coordinated -- Ovulation begins in the brain -- Female sex behavior is coordinated with ovulation -- Male physiology and behavior are not temporally constrained -- Changes in the brain induced by steroids during development direct adult physiology and behavior --
  • [7] Knockouts of the rule: mice with null mutations of steroid receptors, steroidogenic enzymes, and binding proteins --
  • [8] Steroids influence multiple endpoints to organize the brain -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering cell survival -- Steroids organize the brain by altering cell proliferation -- Neuronal migration is not strongly regulated by steroids -- Steroids regulate trophic factors and activity-dependent survival -- Steroids impact on axonal projections, dendritic branching, and connections -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering synaptic connectivity -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering neurochemical phenotype -- Vasopressin is a model of steroid-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain -- Vasopressin demonstrates unique parameters associated with sexual differentiation of the brain --
  • [9] Cellular mechanisms of steroid-mediated organization of the brain -- Prostaglandins masculinize the preoptic area and sexual behavior -- GABA induces sex differences in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus -- Glutamate release is critical to sex differences in synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus -- Endocannabinoids mediate a sex difference in cell genesis in the developing amygdala --
  • [10] Winged messengers: lessons from birds and flies -- Sexual differentiation of the neural circuit for song in songbirds -- Courtship and copulation in drosophila --
  • [11] Sexual differentiation of the primate brain --
  • [12] Sexual differentiation of the human brain -- Androgen insensitivity syndrome -- Estrogen receptor mutation and aromatase deficiency -- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia --
  • [13] Overcoming the hegemony of hormones: genes matter too -- Epigenetics and the development of sex differences in the brain --
  • [14] The value of understanding the effect of sex on the developing brain --
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 electronic text (ix, 99 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9781615040605
Other physical details
digital file.
Reformatting quality
access
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader
Label
Sex and the developing brain, Margaret M. McCarthy, (electronic book)
Publication
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. 87-99)
Color
multicolored
Contents
  • [1] Introduction --
  • [2] Sex determination versus sex differentiation --
  • [3] Masculinization, feminization, and defeminization --
  • [4] Steroid hormones are potent modulators of brain development --
  • [5] Sex differences in the brain are established during a developmental sensitive window -- Steroid levels in the developing brain -- Organizational/activational hormone effects on the brain --
  • [6] Sex differences in physiology and behavior are coordinated -- Ovulation begins in the brain -- Female sex behavior is coordinated with ovulation -- Male physiology and behavior are not temporally constrained -- Changes in the brain induced by steroids during development direct adult physiology and behavior --
  • [7] Knockouts of the rule: mice with null mutations of steroid receptors, steroidogenic enzymes, and binding proteins --
  • [8] Steroids influence multiple endpoints to organize the brain -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering cell survival -- Steroids organize the brain by altering cell proliferation -- Neuronal migration is not strongly regulated by steroids -- Steroids regulate trophic factors and activity-dependent survival -- Steroids impact on axonal projections, dendritic branching, and connections -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering synaptic connectivity -- Steroids organize the developing brain by altering neurochemical phenotype -- Vasopressin is a model of steroid-mediated sexual differentiation of the brain -- Vasopressin demonstrates unique parameters associated with sexual differentiation of the brain --
  • [9] Cellular mechanisms of steroid-mediated organization of the brain -- Prostaglandins masculinize the preoptic area and sexual behavior -- GABA induces sex differences in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus -- Glutamate release is critical to sex differences in synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus -- Endocannabinoids mediate a sex difference in cell genesis in the developing amygdala --
  • [10] Winged messengers: lessons from birds and flies -- Sexual differentiation of the neural circuit for song in songbirds -- Courtship and copulation in drosophila --
  • [11] Sexual differentiation of the primate brain --
  • [12] Sexual differentiation of the human brain -- Androgen insensitivity syndrome -- Estrogen receptor mutation and aromatase deficiency -- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia --
  • [13] Overcoming the hegemony of hormones: genes matter too -- Epigenetics and the development of sex differences in the brain --
  • [14] The value of understanding the effect of sex on the developing brain --
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 electronic text (ix, 99 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9781615040605
Other physical details
digital file.
Reformatting quality
access
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader

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