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The Resource The gastrointestinal circulation, Peter R. Kvietys, (electronic book)

The gastrointestinal circulation, Peter R. Kvietys, (electronic book)

Label
The gastrointestinal circulation
Title
The gastrointestinal circulation
Statement of responsibility
Peter R. Kvietys
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
The microcirculation of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of both myogenic and metabolic regulatory systems. The myogenic mechanism contributes to basal vascular tone and the regulation of transmural pressure, while the metabolic mechanism is responsible for maintaining an appropriate balance between O2 demand and O2 delivery. In the postprandial state, hydrolytic products of food digestion elicit a hyperemia, which serves to meet the increased O2 demand of nutrient assimilation. Metabolically linked factors (e.g., tissue pO2, adenosine) are primarily responsible for this functional hyperemia. The fenestrated capillaries of the gastrointestinal mucosa are relatively permeable to small hydrolytic products of food digestion (e.g., glucose), yet restrict the transcapillary movement of larger molecules (e.g., albumin). This allows for the absorption of hydrolytic products of food digestion without compromising the oncotic pressure gradient governing transcapillary fluid movement and edema formation. The gastrointestinal microcirculation is also an important component of the mucosal defense system whose function is to prevent (and rapidly repair) inadvertent epithelial injury by potentially noxious constituents of chyme. Two pathological conditions in which the gastrointestinal circulation plays an important role are ischemia/reperfusion and chronic portal hypertension. Ischemia/reperfusion results in mucosal edema and disruption of the epithelium due, in part, to an inflammatory response (e.g., increase in capillary permeability to macromolecules and neutrophil infiltration). Chronic portal hypertension results in an increase in gastrointestinal blood flow due to an imbalance in vasodilator and vasoconstrictor influences on the microcirculation
Member of
Cataloging source
CaBNvSL
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Kvietys, Peter R.
Dewey number
612.3
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
no index present
LC call number
QP145
LC item number
.K854 2010
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
  • dictionaries
  • abstracts summaries
  • bibliography
Series statement
Integrated systems physiology, from molecule to function
Series volume
5
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Microcirculation
  • Microcirculation
  • Digestive System
Target audience
  • adult
  • specialized
Label
The gastrointestinal circulation, Peter R. Kvietys, (electronic book)
Instantiates
Publication
Antecedent source
file reproduced from original
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. 95-126)
Color
multicolored
Contents
  • 1. Introduction -- 2. Anatomy -- Extramural blood and lymphatic vessels -- Intramural blood and lymphatic vessels --
  • 3. Regulation of vascular tone and oxygenation -- Basal hemodynamics and oxygenation -- Intrinsic vasoregulation: myogenic and metabolic -- Myogenic -- Metabolic -- Relative impact of myogenic and metabolic mechanisms -- Reactive hyperemia -- Venous pressure elevation -- Arterial pressure reduction -- Mediators of metabolic vasoregulation -- Tissue pO2 -- Adenosine -- Nitric oxide -- Mediators of myogenic vasoregulation -- Shear stress modulation of metabolic and myogenic regulatory systems --
  • 4. Extrinsic vasoregulation: neural and humoral -- Neural -- Postganglionic sympathetic -- Sensory C fibers -- Enteric nerves -- Circulating vasoactive substances --
  • 5. Postprandial hyperemia -- General characteristics -- Localization of the postprandial hyperemia -- Constituents of chyme responsible for the postprandial hyperemia -- Mechanisms involved in the postprandial hyperemia -- Extrinsic nerves -- Enteric neural reflexes -- Circulating hormones -- Tissue metabolic activity --
  • 6. Transcapillary solute exchange -- Ultrastructural pathways -- Endothelial cell membrane -- Fenestrae -- Pinocytotic vesicles -- Interendothelial cell junctions -- Glycocalyx -- Basement membrane -- Physiological (functional) pathways -- Small solutes -- Macromolecules -- Factors influencing vascular permeability -- Ultrastructural correlates for the functional pathways --
  • 7. Transcapillary fluid exchange -- Net transcapillary fluid movement ( Jv,c) -- Capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) -- Capillary pressure (Pc) -- Interstitial fluid pressure (Pt) -- Osmotic reflection coefficient (Od) -- Transcapillary oncotic pressure gradient ([pi]c-[pi]t) --
  • 8. Interaction of capillary and interstitial forces -- Increased venous pressure -- Decreased arterial pressure -- Transepithelial fluid absorption -- Glucose and/or electrolyte-coupled fluid absorption -- Oleic acid-coupled fluid absorption -- Colonic fluid absorption -- Transepithelial fluid secretion --
  • 9. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal defense -- Gastrointestinal acid load -- Intestinal lipid load -- Gastrointestinal restitution --
  • 10. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal pathology I: Ischemia/reperfusion -- Moderate reductions in blood flow: dysfunction -- Severe reductions in blood flow: injury -- Ischemia-induced injury -- I/R-induced injury -- I/R-induced inflammation -- Luminal factors may aggravate mucosal injury during I/R -- Ischemic tolerance and restitution --
  • 11. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal pathology II: Chronic portal hypertension -- The gastrointestinal circulation in chronic portal hypertension (PH) -- Collateral vessels: portosystemic shunting -- Gastrointestinal hyperemia -- Transcapillary fluid exchange -- Luminal factors may aggravate mucosal injury during portal hypertension --
  • 12. Summary and conclusions -- References -- Author biography
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 electronic text (xi, 127 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9781615041176
Level of compression
unknown
Other physical details
digital file. ;
Quality assurance targets
unknown
Reformatting quality
access
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader
Label
The gastrointestinal circulation, Peter R. Kvietys, (electronic book)
Publication
Antecedent source
file reproduced from original
Bibliography note
Includes bibliographical references (p. 95-126)
Color
multicolored
Contents
  • 1. Introduction -- 2. Anatomy -- Extramural blood and lymphatic vessels -- Intramural blood and lymphatic vessels --
  • 3. Regulation of vascular tone and oxygenation -- Basal hemodynamics and oxygenation -- Intrinsic vasoregulation: myogenic and metabolic -- Myogenic -- Metabolic -- Relative impact of myogenic and metabolic mechanisms -- Reactive hyperemia -- Venous pressure elevation -- Arterial pressure reduction -- Mediators of metabolic vasoregulation -- Tissue pO2 -- Adenosine -- Nitric oxide -- Mediators of myogenic vasoregulation -- Shear stress modulation of metabolic and myogenic regulatory systems --
  • 4. Extrinsic vasoregulation: neural and humoral -- Neural -- Postganglionic sympathetic -- Sensory C fibers -- Enteric nerves -- Circulating vasoactive substances --
  • 5. Postprandial hyperemia -- General characteristics -- Localization of the postprandial hyperemia -- Constituents of chyme responsible for the postprandial hyperemia -- Mechanisms involved in the postprandial hyperemia -- Extrinsic nerves -- Enteric neural reflexes -- Circulating hormones -- Tissue metabolic activity --
  • 6. Transcapillary solute exchange -- Ultrastructural pathways -- Endothelial cell membrane -- Fenestrae -- Pinocytotic vesicles -- Interendothelial cell junctions -- Glycocalyx -- Basement membrane -- Physiological (functional) pathways -- Small solutes -- Macromolecules -- Factors influencing vascular permeability -- Ultrastructural correlates for the functional pathways --
  • 7. Transcapillary fluid exchange -- Net transcapillary fluid movement ( Jv,c) -- Capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) -- Capillary pressure (Pc) -- Interstitial fluid pressure (Pt) -- Osmotic reflection coefficient (Od) -- Transcapillary oncotic pressure gradient ([pi]c-[pi]t) --
  • 8. Interaction of capillary and interstitial forces -- Increased venous pressure -- Decreased arterial pressure -- Transepithelial fluid absorption -- Glucose and/or electrolyte-coupled fluid absorption -- Oleic acid-coupled fluid absorption -- Colonic fluid absorption -- Transepithelial fluid secretion --
  • 9. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal defense -- Gastrointestinal acid load -- Intestinal lipid load -- Gastrointestinal restitution --
  • 10. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal pathology I: Ischemia/reperfusion -- Moderate reductions in blood flow: dysfunction -- Severe reductions in blood flow: injury -- Ischemia-induced injury -- I/R-induced injury -- I/R-induced inflammation -- Luminal factors may aggravate mucosal injury during I/R -- Ischemic tolerance and restitution --
  • 11. Gastrointestinal circulation and mucosal pathology II: Chronic portal hypertension -- The gastrointestinal circulation in chronic portal hypertension (PH) -- Collateral vessels: portosystemic shunting -- Gastrointestinal hyperemia -- Transcapillary fluid exchange -- Luminal factors may aggravate mucosal injury during portal hypertension --
  • 12. Summary and conclusions -- References -- Author biography
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 electronic text (xi, 127 p. : ill.)
File format
multiple file formats
Form of item
electronic
Isbn
9781615041176
Level of compression
unknown
Other physical details
digital file. ;
Quality assurance targets
unknown
Reformatting quality
access
Specific material designation
remote
System details
System requirements: Adobe Acrobat reader

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